The Netherlands (also referred to as Holland)
• a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
• Parliamentary democratic constitutional monarchy
Big cities: the Hague (the seat of the government), Rotterdam, Utrecht, Eindhoven
• the majority is ethnically Dutch
• others are Indonesian, German, Turkish etc.
Language: the Dutch language and Frisian (official languages)
70% of the total population have good knowledge of English; 60% also speak German and French
Facts: The Dutch people are among the tallest in the world (an average of about 1.81m for adult males)
Religion: Roman Catholicism, Protestant, Dutch Reformed, Lutheran, Muslim (5%)
Great people: Erasmus, Spinoza (philosophers),
Rembrandt, van Gogh(painters)
• Madurodan miniature city (built in 1952), a miniature town built on a
1:25 scale. The first mayor was Queen Beatrix (in 1952), the then
teen Princess Beatrix. Now, the mayor is elected by a youth council of
25 pupils from schools in the region.
• The tulip gardens
• The windmills
The national anthem: the oldest in the world (1572)
• Dutch company Philips invented the audio cassette, the video tape, the CD, the CD-ROM
• Dike constructions to control floods (Two thirds of the country is vulnerable to flooding. 2000 years ago most of the Netherlands were covered by swamps. 10% of the surface has been taken from the sea.
20% of the Netherlands is below sea level.)